A Timeline of Historical Pandemics. Although modern deterrence theories (there are more than one, and there are several variants) are generally traced back to the start of the Cold War period, they were actually conceived in the aftermath of World War I, a conflict that was brought about by the most massive failure of deterrence in the history of the international system (Maurer 1995).

By the late 1950s, the Soviet Union had built up a convincing nuclear arsenal that could be delivered on the territory of the United States and Western Europe. The concept of deterrence theory can be traced back to the works of philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham. The Article begins with a brief intellectual history of deterrence and the role of the Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology in that history. For a time after World War II, America held the upper hand with regards to nuclear superiority. Deterrence is an old practice, readily defined and described, widely employed but unevenly effective and of questionable reliability. The first Neanderthal to find a bigger stick to ward off enemies was practicing deterrence. Punishment - Punishment - General deterrence: The approach based on general deterrence aims to dissuade others from following the offender’s example. Elevated to prominence after World War II and the arrival of nuclear weapons, deterrence became the central recourse for sustaining international and internal security and stability among and within states in an era of serious conflict. Today’s visualization outlines some of history’s most deadly pandemics, from the Antonine Plague to the current COVID-19 event. Brief history. Though deterrence has been around for years, the formal development of deterrence theory came about after World War II to find ways to think about and utilize nuclear weapons.

It used this threat of "massive retaliation" as a means to deter Soviet aggression. The following section discusses the causal mechanisms that define how the process of deterrence works. Deterrence Theory Kyle McGuffey For many historical policymakers, deterrence has long been thought of as a way to help stem the inevitable onslaught of criminal activity.

These social contract thinkers provided the foundation for modern deterrence theory in criminology. lack of precise knowledge about deterrence. Disease and illnesses have plagued humanity since the earliest days, our mortal flaw. This causal process links the workings of the Recently, however, some studies have suggested that deterrence has little effect if any on criminal activity.

Throughout history, deterrence has been used by people and states to manage conflict. Cold War: A Brief History Nuclear Deterrence. Deterrence theory can be traced to the early utilitarian philosophers, Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham, who believed that people are motivated to obtain pleasure and avoid pain.

Crime, then, can be deterred by increasing the certainty (likelihood), celerity (swiftness), and severity (amount) of legal punishment for committing it.